Forms of appeal


Justin Trudeau appeals to reason when he includes factual information and uses logical arguments in “Remarks by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to apologise to LGBTQ2 Canadians”.

Logos can be found in the speech when Trudeau references the Purge, a government campaign that sought to remove LGBTQ2 Canadians from public service (ll. 39-47), and the Fruit Machine (ll. 52-53), a device which was meant to measure homosexuality and was employed during the Purge. These provide factual evidence on the oppression of LGBTQ2 Canadians.

The Prime Minister explains in detail the many ways in which LGBTQ2 Canadians were persecuted by the government, to illustrate some of the hardship they went through:

(…) suspects were taken to secret locations in the dark of night to be interrogated. They were asked invasive questions about their relationships and sexual preferences. Hooked up to polygraph machines, these law-abiding public servants had the most intimate details of their lives cut open. Women and men were abused by their superiors, and asked demeaning, probing questions about their sex lives. Some were sexually assaulted. Those who admitted they were gay were fired, discharged, or intimidated into resignation. (ll. 54-60)

Here, Trudeau appeals to the audience’s reason. The audience can easily conclude from these details that LGBTQ2 Canadians were mistreated and abused, and can further imagine the psychological and social impact this has had on them.

Trudeau also states that the Canadian government still has much work to do to improve LGBTQ2 Canadians’ lives (ll. 101-102). He then offers a logical argument for his statement, using, once again, factual information: “Transgender Canadians are subjected to discrimination, violence, and aggression at alarming rates. In fact, trans people didn’t even have explicit protection under federal human rights legislation until this year.” (ll. 108-109)


Trudeau appeals to his authority as Prime Minister and to common values as he attempts to bring his audience together for a better future for Canada.

Trudeau creates ethos a...

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