War and persecution of Jews in the Netherlands

Outbreak of the war

On May 10, 1940, German troops invaded the neutral Netherlands. The superiority of the Wehrmacht and the high number of war deaths led the Dutch government to surrender after only five days. The Dutch queen and the Dutch government fled into exile in England. 

The German occupation triggered a profound shock among the population. The German occupiers established a civil administration in the Netherlands. The country was to be firmly tied to Germany, and the Nazi ideology was to be accepted unconditionally by the Dutch. 

In the hope of appeasing the German occupiers, the Dutch administrations cooperated with the occupation authorities without resistance. However, contrary to hopes that the German Wehrmacht would moderate its actions, it continued its crimes against human rights in the Netherlands as well: Jews were deported and murdered, and Dutch people were deported to Germany for labor.

As the military situation of the Wehrmacht deteriorated towards the end of the war, the occupation became even more brutal and merciless. Any resistance that sprouted in the Netherlands against the occupiers was immediately suppres...

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