Forms of appeal

Ethos

Mike Pence’s National Veterans Day Observance speech relies heavily on ethos (appeal to authority), which the speaker uses for different purposes. Throughout the speech, Pence talks about veterans in highly positive terms, and praises them repeatedly, which also creates ethos around them. For example, Pence frequently associates them with courage (ll. 182-185) and sacrifice (ll. 325-326) and suggests that they have played a vital role in the nation’s history by ensuring the American people’s freedom and by preserving democracy (ll. 339-342). Ethos is also created through the anecdotes (stories with a message) that Pence shares about two veterans -  Brian Thacker, a Vietnam veteran (ll. 101-115) and  Juan Macias (ll. 183-186). The anecdotes highlight these veterans’ bravery, implicitly suggesting that all veterans deserve respect and praise.

Pence also portrays himself and President Trump as strong supporters of the military (ll. 234-237), creating ethos around himself, the President, and his administration by associating with the positive traits that the Armed Forces inspire in soldiers, such as courage and a strong sense of morality. Moreover, Trump is portrayed as responsi...

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