How can hooliganism be prevented?
Collaboration between institutions and use of technology
Over the past decades, the problem of hooliganism has been tackled through the development and implementation of a number of practices by various authorities and institutions at a local and national level.
The involvement of police forces has changed in the past years, moving on from simply reacting to instances of hooliganism – usually, at and around stadiums - to a more proactive approach. For example, in preparation for international matches or tournaments, national police forces collaborate and coordinate their efforts to monitor hooligan groups and prevent violence from occurring.
At a national level, the UK is a good example, as the country’s efforts to contain football hooliganism has recently focused on providing safety at stadiums and on monitoring and gathering intelligence to prevent acts of hooliganism. A collaboration between several institutions – police, football clubs, football authorities – has been established, making gathering information about hooligan groups more efficient.
All-seater stadiums, crowd segregation, and the introduction of CCTV (surveillance cameras) and trained safety officers on football grounds, have made it easier to limit the movements of hooligan groups and identify those who engage in aggressive behaviour.
However, the use of technology to track their whereabouts, membership, and activities meant that hooligan groups started to plan violent encoun...