The decline of the movement
Hooliganism in the 21st century is generally characterised by a decline of the movement, which can be partly attributed to the increased security measures implemented by the authorities in regard to this phenomenon.
The decline has also been attributed to the availability and popularity of various forms of technology – the internet, videogames, etc. These provide physically safer, alternative forms of entertainment and ways to build communities, especially for young people. They are also generally carried out alone and at home, as opposed to in public places among large crowds.
A decrease in hooligan-related violence has also been attributed to a change in spectator classes. A rise in ticket prices means that matches are attended by more middle-class supporters, who are less likely to engage in football violence. Premier League matches have also become a tourist attraction, which, together with the rise in price tickets, contribute to a decreased presence of football die-hard fans on the football grounds. However, there is still a high level of violence in British minor leagues, with many incidents not being covered by national media.
The reputation of English supporters...