Forms of appeal


Barack Obama appeals to the audience’s reason by constructing logical arguments based around historical and present facts.

For example, he makes several arguments from causation to suggest that present racial tensions and inequality are rooted in American history: “…that so many of the disparities that exist between the African-American community and the larger American community today can be traced directly to inequalities passed on from an earlier generation…” (ll. 236-239); “That history helps explain the wealth and income gap between blacks and whites, and the concentrated pockets of poverty that persist in so many of today's urban and rural communities.” (ll. 253-255)


There are countless examples of instances when Barack Obama appeals to trust or authority. For example, he builds identification with the audience by constructing positive images of both himself and American society: “This belief comes f...

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